Project Management Guide

Project Management Methodologies

The top project management methodologies

“You mean there’s more than one project management methodology?“实际上,这种方法有很多,有些甚至结合起来形成新的混合方法. But what are they exactly? How do they help project teams work better? And what makes one methodology better than another?

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项目管理方法本质上是处理项目的不同方法. Each one has a unique process and workflow.

If you’re looking for a quick visual guide to popular methodologies, then check out this blog post and infographic: 16 Top Project Management Methodologies.

Here, we look at some of the top project management methodologies, grouped by similarity and popularity.

A. The traditional, sequential methodologies

Waterfall project management methodology

计划一个项目最常见的方法是将导致最终交付的任务排序,并按顺序处理它们. 这个过程也被称为瀑布方法——管理项目的传统方法,也是最容易理解的方法. 你必须在下一项任务开始之前完成一项任务,这是一个连接的项目序列,使整体的交付工作得以完成. 对于产生物理对象(建筑)的项目来说,这是一种理想的方法, computers), and you can easily replicate project plans for future use.

这种方法的强大之处在于,每一步都是预先计划好的,并按照适当的顺序进行布置. While this may be the simplest method to implement initially, 涉众需求或优先级的任何变化都会打乱任务的系列, making it very difficult to manage. This methodology excels in predictability but lacks in flexibility.

Critical path method (CPM)

The critical path method was developed in the 1950s, 基于这样的想法,有些任务你不能开始,直到你完成前一个. 当您将这些相关的任务从头到尾串在一起时,您就可以绘制出关键路径.

确定并关注这一关键路径,可以让项目经理对最重要的工作进行优先级和资源分配,并重新安排任何可能会占用团队带宽的低优先级任务. This way, if you need to make changes to the project schedule, you can optimize your team’s work process without delaying the results.

Further Reading:
blog post

Critical Path Is as Easy as 1-2-3

article

How to Calculate Critical Path in Project Management

Critical chain project management (CCPM)

关键链项目管理进一步采用了关键路径方法. CCPM是一种方法,它通过向关键路径添加资源可用性来关注完成项目任务所需的资源. 它还围绕项目时间表中的这些任务构建时间缓冲区, ensuring the project meets its deadlines.

B. The Agile family

Agile project management methodologies are growing in popularity, 这要归功于竞争激烈的商业环境和不断增加的创新. 通常,敏捷方法优先考虑更短的、迭代的周期和灵活性.

Let’s take a look at some of the most popular Agile frameworks.

Agile project management methodology

敏捷方法论的核心是在2001年开发出来的,有四个核心价值观:

  • Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
  • Working software over comprehensive documentation
  • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
  • Responding to change over following a plan

The Agile Manifesto of Software Development 在交付价值和与客户合作方面提出开创性的想法. Today, 敏捷可以引用这些价值,也可以引用实现它们的框架, including Scrum, Kanban, extreme programming, and adaptive project framework.

What do these various Agile frameworks have in common?

客户(内部或外部)明确项目目标, while the final deliverable can change as the project progresses. 项目团队在迭代循环中工作,总是在最后评估结果. Depending on the results of these evaluations, 最终的交付品可能会被修改以更好地满足客户的需求. 无论是在项目团队内部还是与项目涉众之间,持续的协作都是关键.

Further Reading:
blog post

From Surviving to Thriving: 3 Challenges PMOs Need to Conquer Now

ebook

7 Steps to Developing an Agile Marketing Team

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Should Your Business Go Agile?

blog post

8 Attitudes Guaranteed to Sink Your Agile Projects

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The Agile Origins of Project Management 2.0

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Join the Agile Marketing Revolution!

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Agile Project Management vs. Process Oriented: Why Not Both?

Scrum

Scrum是最流行的敏捷开发框架,因为它实现起来相对简单. 它还解决了软件开发人员过去一直在努力解决的许多问题, such as convoluted development cycles, inflexible project plans, and shifting production schedules.

In Scrum, 小团队由Scrum大师领导,他的主要工作是清除所有阻碍高效工作的障碍. The team works in short cycles of two weeks called “sprints,尽管团队成员每天开会讨论他们的工作以及任何需要清除的障碍. 这种方法允许快速开发和测试,特别是在小型团队中.

Further Reading:
blog post

Fundamentals of the Scrum Methodology

blog post

顾客的每日建议:如何使你的自由职业员工的管理更有效率

blog post

Scrum in Marketing: Making Enterprises Adaptive

blog post

Scrum in Wrike: Making Software Development More Agile

Kanban

看板是另一个基于团队能力实现敏捷的框架. It originated in Toyota’s factories during the 1940s. 各部门使用一种可视的卡片系统(“看板”)来表明他们的团队已经准备好使用更多的原材料,有更多的生产能力.

今天,这种管理项目的可视化方法非常适合需要稳定输出的工作. Project teams create visual representations of their tasks, often using sticky notes and whiteboards (or online Kanban boards), 把笔记或任务按预定的阶段进行,当进度发生时查看进度,并确定哪些地方可能会出现障碍.

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Extreme Programming (XP)

Extreme programming (XP) is another offshoot of Agile. XP是一种旨在提高软件质量(和简单性)以及开发团队适应客户需求的能力的方法. Much like the original Agile formula, XP features short work sprints, frequent iterations, and constant collaboration with stakeholders. Change can happen within a sprint. 如果某个特定功能的工作还没有开始,可以将其替换为类似的任务.

Adaptive Project Framework (APF)

由于需求的不确定性和不断变化,使用传统的项目管理方法很难管理大多数IT项目,因此产生了适应性项目框架.

APF从需求分解结构(RBS)开始,以基于产品需求定义战略项目目标, functions, sub-functions, and features. The project proceeds in iterative stages, and at the end of each step, teams evaluate previous results to improve performance and practices. 涉众还可以在每个阶段的开始更改项目的范围,以便团队能够产生最大的业务价值.

C. The change management methodologies

有些方法处理项目管理,但是有额外的关注 change management — especially planning for risks and taking control of change when it happens. Notable methods include:

Event chain methodology (ECM)

事件链方法背后的基本思想是,潜在的风险通常存在于项目的范围之外. 为这些风险做好准备并计划您的响应是必要的,因为意外事件将影响您的项目进度, deliverables, and potentially its success.

Extreme Project Management (XPM)

Extreme project management (XPM) is the opposite of waterfall. 它为您提供了一种方法来管理巨大的变化,并仍然向前推进到项目完成. In XPM, you can alter the project plan, budget, and even the final deliverable to fit changing needs, no matter how far along the project is. 当在短时间内(从几周到几天)管理项目时,这是一个很好的选择.

Further Reading:
blog post

What Is Extreme Project Management and Is It Right for Your Team?

D. The process-based methodologies

Next, beat365官方app下载有项目管理方法,实际上转向业务流程管理(BPM)。, where each approach focuses on work as a collection of processes. 而项目管理的纯粹主义者可能会争辩说,这些方法属于不同的列表, we think these are still good ways to plan and execute a project.

Lean

Lean is a methodology focused on streamlining and cutting out waste. 第一步是创建工作流程分解,以识别和消除瓶颈和延迟. beat365官方app下载的目标是用更少的人力做更多的事情——用更少的人力为客户提供价值, less money, and less time.

Further Reading:
video

Product Development Tips From the Wright Brothers

infographic

5 Lessons in Lean Product Development From the Wright Brothers

blog post

Startups Should Lean on Lean Project Management

video

The 7 Wastes That Cripple Knowledge Workers

Six sigma

六西格玛是一种基于统计的方法,通过测量出现的缺陷或缺陷并尽可能地消除缺陷来寻求提高过程质量. A process can attain a six sigma rating if 99.99966% of the final product — your project deliverable — is defect-free.

Lean six sigma

Combining the minimalist approach of lean (“no waste!”) and the quality improvement of six sigma (“zero defects!”), 精益六西格玛专注于消除浪费,使项目更有效率, cost-effective, and truly answer customers’ needs.

Process-based project management

基于过程的项目管理是一种将所有项目目标与公司更大的使命和企业价值观相结合的方法. 所有的项目目标和任务都是战略性的,并且必须与更大的企业目标联系起来. The steps involved include defining the process, establishing metrics, measuring methods, adjusting goals when these prove unstable, planning improvements, and implementing them.

E. Other methodologies

PRINCE2

PRINCE2 stands for Projects In Controlled Environments. 这是一种英国政府使用的项目管理方法,其特点是基于产品的规划方法. In PRINCE2, 一个结构化的项目委员会负责高级别的活动,例如设置业务论证和资源分配. 项目经理负责较低层次的日常活动,如日程安排. 这种方法为团队提供了更大的资源控制和有效降低风险的能力.

Further Reading:
blog post

PRINCE2 Explained

PRiSM

PRiSM是“整合可持续方法的项目”的缩写,旨在在将环境可持续性纳入其流程的同时管理变革. PRiSM的目标是在完成任务的同时减少公司对环境和社会的负面影响. It is, quite literally, green project management.

Benefits realization

From conception to execution to delivery and beyond, 利益实现方法关注于您的可交付成果是否满足客户期望的利益, and not just whether you delivered it on time or within budget. 这种方法可以确保您为客户和涉众提供真正的价值.

Further Reading:
blog post

From Surviving to Thriving: 3 Challenges PMOs Need to Conquer Now

F. The PMBOK “method”

尽管这是否是一种真正的项目管理方法还有待商榷, 您将会发现一些组织声称他们使用项目管理知识体系(PMBOK)方法来管理项目.

While not an official methodology, 这个系统包括将项目分解为五个过程组,由项目管理协会(PMI)同意,并记录在项目管理知识体系指南(PMBOK)中。. The five stages include:

  • Initiating
  • Planning
  • Executing
  • Controlling
  • Closing

What’s inside the PMBOK guide

WThe PMBOK collects set processes, best practices, terminologies, 以及项目管理行业接受作为标准的指导方针. You’ll find it documented in the book, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), compiled and overseen by the Project Management Institute (PMI).

项目管理知识体系指南为项目经理提供了指导方针和最佳实践, 定义从项目生命周期到项目管理策略和概念的所有内容. 项目管理知识体系指南详细描述了在项目生命周期中相互作用和重叠的各种项目管理过程.

The 10 project management knowledge areas of PMBOK

PMBOK officially recognizes 47 typical project management processes, organized into 10 knowledge areas:

  • 项目沟通管理:在团队成员和外部涉众之间传播信息的过程, ensuring that data is exchanged continuously, and more importantly, understood by all concerned.
  • 项目成本管理:有关预算、资金、支出分配和时间安排的过程. Cost management is dependent on activity estimates from time management.
  • 项目人力资源管理:涉及管理项目团队的过程, like sourcing, hiring, assigning roles, professional development, and fostering team spirit.
  • Project integration management: Processes necessary to define, consolidate, 并协调所有其他过程和项目管理活动. 这些过程对于设定期望和保持沟通渠道畅通至关重要.
  • Project procurement management: Processes for planning, budgeting, 购买资源——无论是物质的还是信息的——来完成工作.
  • 项目质量管理:定义项目成功或考虑任务完成的标准的过程. The team manages quality at every stage of the project, from planning to continuous performance improvement.
  • 项目风险管理:准备和管理意外风险的过程.
  • Project scope management: Processes managing the scope or parameters of a project. 这些过程确保范围是良好定义的,并且所有的需求保持在限制之内.
  • Project stakeholder management:确定谁将受到项目影响并管理与他们的关系的过程, 包括在项目方向和执行方面与利益相关者合作的策略.
  • 项目时间管理:确保项目在规定期限前完成所需的过程.
Further Reading:
ebook

Top Project Management Methodologies & Frameworks for Successful Teams

blog post

PMP Certification? Use this List of Helpful PMBOK Guide Resources

blog post

5 Online Project Management Courses for Beginners

blog post

20 Online Training Resources for Project Managers

blog post

What Project Management Books Should You Read?

Next Steps

Choose the Right Project Management Methodology

How to choose the right project management methodology

有这么多不同的选项,您如何为您的项目选择正确的方法? You should pick based on the needs of your project and your team. Two tips are relevant here:

A. Start with the end in mind

Take a look at your requirements, project goals, and objectives. What does your final deliverable need to look like? What benefits should it provide? Here are some examples:

  • If it’s a physical object, 例如,建筑或家庭产品的材料和利益相关者的期望非常明确, 它可以从瀑布式或关键路径等顺序方法中受益.
  • If it’s a software product or app that is not set in stone, a flexible Agile methodology may be just what the project needs. 
  • 如果环境可持续性是你组织的核心价值,对你的产品交付至关重要, try PRiSM. 
  • 基于过程的方法,如精益或精益六西格玛支持最小可行产品的快速开发.

B. Assess what’s already working

不要忘记看看那些已经为你的团队证明成功的流程. In what kind of work environment does your team excel?

  • If they thrive on collaboration, incorporating new ideas as they work, and even last-minute pivots due to changing needs, consider methodologies such as Scrum, Kanban, XP, or APF.
  • 或者他们更喜欢一个有序的、结构化的计划,按顺序完成任务? 然后看看诸如瀑布、关键路径和关键链项目管理等方法.

Now that you’ve been introduced to the various methodologies, the next step is to understand each phase of the project life cycle, so you can start planning your project from start to finish.

在下一节中,beat365官方app下载将概述您需要了解的关于项目生命周期的所有内容.